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บทความแนะนำประวัติองค์กร “SRC- Semiconductor Research Corporation ซึ่งเป็นองค์กรพัฒนาเทคโนโลยีนาโนซอฟต์แวร์คอมพิวเตอร์ของสหรัฐอเมริกา ที่ได้รับการก่อตั้งขึ้น ในปี พศ. 2525 โดย Robert Noyce จาก Intel, Jack Kilby จาก Texas Instruments, โดยมี Erich Bloch จาก IBM เป็นประธานก่อตั้ง เพื่อดำเนินการรวบรวมเงินทุนวิจัยมาจัดสรรให้แก่นักวิจัยระดับผู้นำของโลกในการวิจัยหาเทคโนโลยีนาโนซอฟต์แวร์คอมพิวเตอร์ให้แก่อุตสาหกรรมอีเล็คทรอนิคส์ของสหรัฐอเมริกา




The Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC): A Brief Overview




In the early 1980’s, the U.S. semiconductor industry found itself facing intensifying international competition and without an adequate inflow of research ideas addressing industry technology needs and without access to university graduates who were knowledgeable about semiconductor sciences and technologies. Led by the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), the industry adopted the radical idea of jointly funding pre- competitive university research programs whose results would be shared by all sponsoring (and fiercely competitive) companies. This then was the genesis of the Semiconductor Research Corporation that was formed in 1982 and given the mandate to rapidly create and operate a U.S. university research program responsive to the long- term needs of the industry. The SRC founders included visionaries such as Robert Noyce of Intel and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments, co-inventors of the integrated circuit, and the first Chairman of the Board of Directors was Erich Bloch of IBM who later became the Director of the National Science Foundation.








The SRC formed industry technical advisory boards and issued a solicitation to the university community requesting proposals in the broadly defined areas of device sciences, manufacturing sciences and design sciences. A massive response from the university community resulted and in late 1982, the first university programs were launched. Almost from the outset, SRC realized that to give the research program context and direction, and working with its technical advisory boards, it developed a set of ridiculously ambitious ten-year technical goals including 0.25 micron integrated circuit technology, a 64Megabit DRAM, etc.. Periodically over the years, these goals were modified several times and were the forerunners of what is now known as the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, a detailed fifteen year rojection of the path of technology needs for the semiconductor industry.




The operational models established in the early days of SRC have gradually been refined over time to emphasize customer satisfaction and continuous process improvement. One unique attribute of the SRC research program is that it strives to create partnerships between the university researchers and the industry sponsors. An important element of this partnership is the industrial liaison program where each project is assigned at least one industry expert who acts as a ‘friend of the research’, providing support and consultation to the researchers. SRC has instituted a web-accessible and interactive database for its sponsors and researchers for the support of SRC operations and that houses thousands of technical documents resulting from the research. Over its twenty-seven year history, SRC has supported or partially supported over seven thousand graduates; a large fraction of whom were PhD students. The research emerging from the SRC programs has had a significant impact on the operations of its member companies; in no small part due to the fact that, working with industry, SRC is able to anticipate long-term technical needs and to creative highly innovative programs that respond to these needs.


In the late 1990’s, it became apparent that industry needed a focused research effort to lay the groundwork for CMOS technologies near the ultimate limits of device scaling. Operating on the principle that this regime would require non- conventional thinking, SRC entered into a partnership with DARPA to form the Focus Center Research Program in the U.S. university system. This program asked faculty to think out-of-the box about technology challenges near the end of CMOS scaling and has been a significant progenitor of new ideas stimulating both industry and government follow- on projects and is now comprised of five multi-university research centers.




What can be done to continue the benefits of Moore’s Law scaling beyond the end of CMOS scaling? Although this may not happen for one to two decades, an end to scaling is foreseeable. In 2005, SRC partnered with NSF, NIST, and the states of California, Indiana, Georgia, New York and Texas to create the Nano- electronics Research Initiative. Its mission is to discover new logic transistors whose operating principles need not be based on electron charge and that can continue Moore’s Law benefits for several more decades.  Many innovative concepts are being explored by the program some of which will likely form the basis for the continued long- term progress of the semiconductor industry.






Throughout its history, SRC has maintained a steady focus on its mission of university research in support of the semiconductor industry. Consistent with this focus, students are recognized as an important product of SRC research and SRC is pleased with the recognized ability of the more than seven thousand graduates to quickly and meaningfully contribute to the industry. In 2000, the SRC expanded one of its research programs, called Global Research Collaboration, to accept sponsorship by international companies and to extend its research program to international universities. To date, research has been implemented in over fifty international universities and is producing excellent research and graduates. This expansion of SRC operations was driven by the recognition that the difficult technical challenges that must be met to sustain progress in the far nanometer regime will require our collective best efforts.


SRC has operated throughout its history under the principle that the vast majority of the funds provided to it by its members should go to support university research and continues to offer one of the lowest costs of operation of any consortium. It has been recognized for the excellence of its programs by award of the 2005 National Technology Medal by the President of the U.S. Looking ahead, SRC is well positioned to address the technology challenges faced by the semiconductor industry and to apply its management methodologies to the resolution of societal needs for clean energy, improved technologies for healthcare, and many other areas.




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